How We Manufacture
Our Products

Phase 1

Raw Material Extraction

Based on the geological model and the pre-approved excavation plan, the raw materials for cement production are excavated and benched by a fleet of bulldozers (ripping and pushing over the front of the bench).

Transportation of extracted raw material: The extracted raw materials are loaded by loaders onto trucks and transported to either a buffer stock and/or directly to the crushing plant.

Phase 2

Raw Material Crushing

The raw materials and corrective additives are crushed by means of three crushers, and the output material is usually smaller than 50 millimeters in size.

Phase 3

Raw material storage and pre-homogenization

Preparing the raw mix stock: The crushed raw materials are blended, analyzed and then transported via belt conveyors to the stacker that travels up and down alongside the storage area for buildup pre-homogenization longitudinal raw mix stockpile using the "Chevron method" of stacking.

Raw material transport to grinding plant: A reclaimer rakes down the raw material from one end of the pile so that material is reclaimed from its entire section. As a result, the re-claimed material contains material from all pile layers i.e. variations in chemical composition are negligible. The reclaimed material is transported via a long belt conveyor to the grinding plants.

Phase 4

Raw material drying-grinding

Raw materials are fed into a ball mill which is basically a large "tube" with balls of varying sizes inside. When it rotates around its longitudinal axis, the balls are thrown about inside the tube. As a result, the raw materials are ground to a fine raw meal. The raw materials are also dried in the mill by means of hot gas from kilns and/or from a hot gas generator. The finished dried and ground product is called "raw meal." The fineness of the raw meal is controlled by the CN laboratory.

Phase 5
Raw meal Homogenization and Storage

The raw meal is conveyed to special blending silos, where the homogenization process is carried out continuously in order to ensure even variation in the chemical composition. Additionally, this serves as a raw meal buffer to ensure continuous clinker production in case of raw mill stoppage.

Phase 6

Burning process

The raw meal is transformed into clinker (semi-finished product) by heating it to a temperature of about 1450 °C in rotary kilns. Rotary kilns are tubular, with a diameter of three to five meters and a slope of more than 3% to help material flow. The hot finish - burnt clinker falls down from the kiln into a grate cooler where it is cooled by means of cold air passing through the holes of the grates.

Phase 7

Cement grinding

The Cement (final product) is obtained from grinding a mixture of clinker with gypsum and other additives such as pure limestone, slag, pozzolan, etc.

Grinding is performed in two steps:
1) Pre-grinding of the mix of clinker, gypsum and additives to intermediate small size particles by means of roller press

2) Grinding of the roller press output by means of a ball mill which is basically a large "tube" with balls of varying balls sizes inside. When it rotates around its longitudinal axis, the balls are thrown about inside the tube causing the mix of clinker, gypsum and additives to be ground into fine powder by the impact and attrition of these balls.

Phase 8
Cement packaging and delivery

The cement is distributed to customers locally and beyond (export) either:

  • Packed in Bags of 50kg and transported by means of on high way trucks
  • Packed in Jumbo bags (1500kg) and transported by means of on high way trucks or ships
  • Packed in Sling bags and transported via ships
  • Bulk (by trucks or via ships)