Raw Mills & Kilns

The kilns are the core of the cement manufacturing process. They consist of the following main equipment:

  • The kilns are the core of the cement manufacturing process. They consist of the following main equipment:

    • Preheater cyclones
    • Rotary kiln tube
    • Cooler
    • Exhaust gas fans
    • Dedusting filters


  • The clinker burning process is operated in counter flow principle. The raw meal is fed to the top of preheater cyclones where it is heated up to approximately 930°C by the kiln exhaust gas. It is burned in the rotary kiln with flames of 2000°C, where a series of chemical reactions take place resulting in the formation of clinker and the release of CO2. The clinker discharged from the kiln outlet at 1100 °C is then cooled down with a grate cooler and cooling air fans. The air is heated and the clinker cooled. The resulting hot air is returned to the kiln where it is reused for combustion and heat recovery purposes, and the cooled clinker is transported to closed silos for storage. The kiln exhaust gases are passed through a dedusting filter in order to collect the dust and return them to the process.